Small Molecule Drug Metabolism

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V. The top changes that occur and their mass shifts  

Below is a brief list of mass shifts caused by metabolism of common functional groups. 

  1. Glucuronidation: plus 176 u.
  2. Sulfation: plus 80 u.
  3. Oxidation (N-, S-): plus 16 u.
  4. Hydroxylation (aliphatic, aromatic): plus 16 u (or 32, if two sites).
  5. Dealkylation: minus the alkyl group: minus 14 u for a methyl group, and 28 u for an ethyl group.
  6. Hydrolysis: minus R-1 for ester hydrolysis into the acid.

 

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